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Read the passage carefully and answer the question that follows.

There are many different approaches to conflict management, each of which may have utility in particular circumstances. A great deal of scholarship has been devoted to analysing how and in what situations different approaches can be applied most effectively.

Conflict management approaches can be classified into two broad categories: firstly on the basis of the level of escalation which the particular conflict is being managed. In this sense one can distinguish between the peaceful and the military approaches. The trademarks of the peaceful approach are negotiation, verbal persuasion, use of inducements, denial of privileges and subtle manipulations, short of the use of physical forces.

While those of the military approach relates to the use of physical coercion. The use of physical force could be by a party to the conflict or a third party to promote one side’s interests, impose a settlement or create a situation in which diplomatic negotiations can occur.

Secondly, conflict management approaches can also be classified according to the status of the participants in the bargaining process. For example, a conflict could be managed through negotiation that is, direct bargaining by the parties involved in the conflict or through mediation, that is with the help of a third party.

Adaped from Imobiche. T.A. (2003) The (OAUTAU) and OAS Regional Conflict Management A comparative Assesment, lbadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.

1. The expression third party as used in the passage means:

A. Politician   B. Intruder   C. conformist   D. Mediator.

2. From the passage, it can be deduced that _____

A. All nations adopt the peaceful approach
B. All nations prefer the military option
C. Prevailing circumstances push a warring nation to sue for peace.
D. Conflicts are noted for facilitating opportunities.

3. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

A. The approach to employ in conflict management depends on the state of affairs.
B. Only one conflict management approach can be applied in all situations
C. All conflict management approaches can be applied in all situations.
D. There is a general disagreement among scholars on conflict management

4. According to the passage, the different approaches to conflict management are:

A. pernicious    B. uniform    C. misleading    D. Fundamental.

5. The word utility; as used in the passage means:

A. difficulty    B. Attitude    C. usefulness    D. Management.

6. The word couched, as used in the passage, means ______

A. Arrange   B. Expressed   C. modified   D. Itemized.

The passage below has gaps. Immediately following each gap, four options are provided. Choose the most appropriate option for each gap.

Before now, students bumped onto career by chance or through the advice and insistence of parents. These parents had pre-conceived notions of ----7------[ A. prestigious, B. insignificant, C. inferior, D. debased]

profession and gave little consideration to their children’s ------8-----[A. interest, B. aptitude, C. knowledge, D. skills.]
Student’s career decisions were also ---------9--------[A. hampered. B. influenced, C. subdued D. rejected] by the type of secondary schools they attended.
Before government take-over of schools in 1971, over 80% of elementary and secondary schools were privately owned and competition was -----10-----[A. minimal. B. high, C. low D. moderate] among these schools.
Each strived to calve an -----11-----[A. image, B. attitude, C. effort, D. avenue for]
herself by excelling in sports or academics and students often ended up in -----12----[A. engineering, B. medicine, C. the sciences D. law. ]
Junior student tried to --------13------[A. emulate, B. appreciate, C. reject D. denounce] the career choices of their seniors.
This spirit of rivalry among mission and private schools ----14----[A. waned, B. heightened, C. intensified, D. increased] with government take-over of schools.
Government’s involvement in career development is beset with many problems. One of such problem is the ------15-----[A. acute, B. mild, C. slow, D. average] shortage of professional career development officers.

These few officers are -----16----[A. usually, B. seldom, C. often, D. frequently] given the opportunity to practice.

If the government of Nigeria has -----17---- [A. muffled, B. lauded, C. mumbled, D. enunciated ] guidance and counseling policy. It must be pointed out that emphasis is still at the secondary level of education. This situation approves, rejects, contradicts, verifies the current view that career development should start at the pre-primary level and continue till adulthood.

In these questions, select the option that best explains the information conveyed in the sentence.

18. The workers tightened their hold on the capital

A. They tightened a rope round their capital
B. They controlled their capital more strictly
C. They held onto other workers in the capital
D. They stretched their hold on the capital and beyond

19. Amedu’s action provoked severe criticism

A. His actions were seriously rejected
B. His actions were severe and accepted.
C. His actions were itemized because he was young.
D. His actions provoked the humour.

20. I haven’t seen the movie and my brother haven’t either.

A. I have seen the movie but neither of my brothers has.
B. My brother and I haven’t seen the movie
C. Only my brother has seen the movie
D. I was the only one that has seen the movie.

21. Sule would have been given the car if his father had not complained.

A. He wasn’t given the car because his father complained
B. He was given the car because his father complained
C. His father complained about the car and he was given.
D. He was given the car even though his father didn’t complain.

22. Adayi cannot halt the march of time.

A. She is willing to march on
B. She cannot change the way thing has happen.
C. She halts the march on time.
D. She cannot alter the peace march.

23. The lecture is Uye’s road to Damascus.

A. The lecture is an opportunity to travel to Damascus.
B. The lecture is an experience that changes the way she thinks
C. The lecture talks exclusively about Damascus.
D. The lecture is an experience that cannot be changed.

24. Ado is one of the backwoodsmen.

A. He is one of those that live in a distant and underdeveloped area
B. He is one of the active member of the community
C. He is one of the honest men that lives in the community
D. He is one of those that live in the most developed part of the city.

25. Bello said he would pitch his tent with the club.

A. He would support the club.
B. He would build a pitch in the club
C. He would build a tent on the pitch.
D. He would distance himself from the club.

26. Try not to lose heart, said the man.

A. Try not to be bold and weak
B. Try not to become sad and hopeless
C. Try not to be happy and feeble
D. Try not to be timid and hopeful.

27. Kasim would have attended the party if he had been invited.

A. He would not have attended even if he was invited
B. He attended the party before he was invited.
C. He was not invited and so, he did not attend
D. He attended the party without invitation.


For these questions, choose the option opposite in meaning to the word or phrase in italics

28. Adewale’s arrival always triggers a media frenzy

A. Violence   B. Agitation   C. Calm   D. Excitement.

29. She said, the experience was harrowing.

A. Educating   B. Frightening   C. Pleasant   D. Strange

30. The house was invaded by the young officers

A. Set up   B. Put down   C. Defended   D. built

31. I like Adamu weird attitude.

A. Buoyant   B. Peculiar   C. Zestful   D. normal.

32. We travelled to an obscure little town.

A. rugged   B. Distinguished   C. Secluded   D. inglorious.

33. She is known for her bizarre dressing.

A. Natural   B. Weird   C. Obsolete   D. Odious.

34. Lami normally scurries around town

A. Scampers   B. Dashes   C. Dawdles   D. Scuffles

35. Sule’s poem is always explicit and compelling

A. Exciting   B. Clear   C. Ambiguous   D. Long.

36. Usman smiled in a scornful way

A. Respectful   B. Derisive   C. Sarcastic   D. Deluded

37. Alade is noted for his erratic behaviour.

A. Fitful   B. Bizarre   C. Consistent   D. Euphoric

38. The Priest knows Ochai as an abstainer

A. Someone who never drinks alcohol
B. Someone who holds onto his ideas
C. Someone who reads a lot
D. Someone who never cares about others.

For this questions, choose the option nearest in meaning to the word or phrase in italics.

39. She gave a caustic remark on the occasion

A. tangible   B. Friendly   C. Insignificant   D. Sarcastic.

40. It was a good try but it didn’t quite walk out.

A. Come to   B. come off   C. come from   D. come for

41. Garuba’s performances in the competition was horrid.

A. terrible   B. encouraging   C. Commendable   D. rigid.

42. Just give me the basic facts with needless details

A. relevant   B. extraneous   C. essential   D. critical

43. Usarna likes toys made with bright and animated colours.

A. dull   B. sparkling   C. black   D. deep

44. The man has strong distaste for alcohol.

A. love   B. aversion   C. desire   D. excitement.

45. The schism in the organisation is on the increase.

A. disagreement   B. understanding   C. opportunity   D. rot

46. Sule admires people who have unbending character

A. mobile   B. steady   C. wavering   D. unstable

47. He detests honesty

A. likes   B. hates   C. encourages   D. commands.

From questions below; choose the option that best completes the gap(s)

48. The number of stores will be increased ... twenty to thirty.

A. from   B. on   C. at   D. into

49. ……..bomb had earlier been defused

A. A leaf   B. An alive   C. A life   D. A live

50. The mechanic did not tell me the brakes …..... bad

A. were   B. are   C. is   D. was.

51. Tayo could have supplied the goods but it was ….. into two

A. splitting   B. split   C. splited   D. splits.

52. Had Aisha realized what marriage entails she ………..

A. could have not rush into it
B. would have rushes into it
C. would not have rushes into it
D. would not have rushed into it.

53. The company deals ... computer software

A. with   B. for   C. in    D. to.

54. There is no logic ______ any of their claims.

A. with   B. in   C. from   D. up

55. ………. the house was an easy task for the demolition squad.

A. Bringing forth   B. Tearing down   C. Bringing up   D. Tearing with.

For this question, choose the option that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.

56. Bore

A. call   B. curl   C. slot   D. hum

57. Head

A. said   B. heard   C. herd   D. shirt.

58. Sky.

A. cite   B. eats   C. breaks   D. coil.

For questions below, choose the appropriate stress pattern from the options. the stress syllables are written in capital letter(s)

59. Programmatic

A. proGRAMmatic    B. PROgrammatic    C. programMATIC   D. programmatiC

60. Certification

A. certiFIcation   B. CERtification   C. certificAtion   D. cerTIfication.

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