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Read passages I II, III and IV carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Passage I

Attitudes toward the smoking of cigarettes and the consumption of alcohol may be used to illustrate typical African ethics. Apart from the fact that smoking has now been linked with the lung cancer disease, the African moralist has always regarded smoking as an indication of moral degradation. A number of people have accepted the moralist idea on smoking. Some have refrained from smoking, and those who could influence others, such as parents and religious leaders, have also exerted their influence to prevent others from smoking.

On the other hand, a good many people have remained indifferent to the moralist view and have continued to smoke. The same argument has been applied to the consumption of alcohol. The African moralist, basing his judgement on the behaviour of a few alcoholics, tends to regard the habit of taking alcohol as a sign of wretchedness.

The moralist holds the view that anybody who forms the habit of consuming alcohol will never do well in life. While this may be true in respect of a few people in the society, the fear of the moralist has not been justified. However, the economist is primarily interested in the habit of smoking and the consumption of alcohol in so far as they give satisfaction to smokers and drinkers and so generate supply of and demand for tobacco and alcohol. The economist is interested in knowing how many packets of cigarettes are consumed and to what extent an increase or fall in consumption could affect production that is, supply.

Similarly, he is interested in how much beer is consumed and how the supply of beer will adjust to the demand for it. He examines the habits and the pressures which can lead to the readjustment of wants and the reallocation of resources to cover the wants. Some moral principles associated with religion tend to lead on to economic problems.

Followers of certain religions are expected not to consume pork, take alcohol or smoke tobacco. Devotees of some religious groups, on the other hand, can eat pork while others are expected to abstain from alcohol and smoking. Strict observance of these moral rules could cripple the breweries, the cigarette factories and some businesses; however, there seems to be a growing number of alcohol consumers and cigarette smokers – a development which should be of interest to the economist.

1. According to the passage, the moralist idea is that _______

A. people should accept a point of view only when they are convinced.
B. smoking is not good but a little alcohol may be permitted.
C. the smoking of cigarettes is bad and unacceptable.
D. it is typically African not to smoke cigarettes.

2. It can be concluded from the passage that morality religion and economy are _______

A. somewhat interconnected.
B. clearly interconnected.
C. certainly unrelated.
D. certainly different.

3. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?

A. Everyone ignores the moralist view on drinking and smoking.
B. Total abstinence from drinking and smoking is a religious obligation.
C. People who drink or smoke surely die of cancer.
D. Smoking and drinking may have positive effects on the economy.

4. The view expressed by the writer in the last paragraph is that ______

A. more people appear to take to drinking and smoking.
B. the number of alcoholics and smokers is certainly increasing.
C. sales of alcohol and tobacco products have improved tremendously.
D. more people now abstain from drinking and smoking.

5. The positions maintained by the moralist and the economist can be described as being _______

A. very passionate    B. quite indifferent    C. at variance    D. very agreeable

Passage II

When man evolved a conscience, his basic relationship with the other animals began to change. Until then, they were broadly divided into those which ate him when they got the chance, those which he ate when he got the chance, and a third group which competed with him for food, or was otherwise a nuisance to him in the business of keeping alive.

In the primitive situation, man was, therefore, basically against Nature but, as the battle was progressively won, conscience crept in; the awareness of responsibility, and a failure to meet it, produced feelings of guilt. Those who live in cities and need no longer do battle against Nature are nowadays most actively for Nature.

At this time, something like a thousand kinds of animals (vertebrate animals) can be said to be in danger of extinction. A few of them have been reduced to this precarious position by extensive killing but the majority are disappearing only as fast as the particular kind of country they need for existence is itself disappearing: and all this at the hands of man, as often as not by mistake.

There are three species of turtles whose future survival is menaced by the demand for turtle soup, which would hardly justify the examination of a giant reptile whose family has existed for 200 million years. Leopards are in jeopardy because of the fashion for their skins. As they get rarer, the prices rise and, as leopard skin coasts become more expensive, the demand increases. No species can long survive the price of N60,000 which a half-grown baby leopard now carries on its skin. And crocodiles, the longest surviving reptiles, are now dwindling alarmingly as a result of the fashion in crocodile skin for ladies’ handbags and men’s shoes.

The human population explosion spreads mankind across the land surfaces of the earth at an alarming rate. There will be twice as many of us before most of us are dead. Does this mean no room for wild animals? Of course not. With ingenuity and forethought, a place can be kept for them. To destroy their habitat is as unnecessary as it would be to pull down a great cathedral in order to grow potatoes on the sites. A campaign to save what remains is the concern of a new kind of Noah’s Ark – the World Wildlife Fund. It does not believe that all is lost.

Adapted from Peter Scott’s article in Sunday Times.

6. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?

A. Man poses the greatest threat to Nature.
B. Man kills animals only when he can afford to do so.
C. Man cannot spare those animals that eat his kind.
D. Man eats all categories of animals.

7. The sentence, ‘There will be twice as many of us before most of us are dead’ means ______

A. the population growth rate will double before our death.
B. mankind is fast spreading across the earth.
C. some increase in human and animal population growth rates.
D. many of us will die as a result of population explosion.

8. The expression when man evolved a conscience means when _______

A. man acquired new habits.
B. man developed an awareness of right and wrong.
C. man became a critical creature.
D. man’s intellect improved tremendously.

9. From the passage, the attitude of the writer can be described as ______

A. optimistic    B. indifferent    C. pessimistic    D. partial

10. The basic causes of the elimination of certain animals from the earth include _______

A. man’s penchant for meat and the sale of animals for meat and hides.
B. man’s decision to live in cities and the development of large farmlands.
C. a deliberate battle against Nature and the quest for leopard skin.
D. extensive killing of animals and the fast disappearance of their favourable habitats.

Passage III

The passage below has gaps number 11 to 20. Immediately following each gap, four options are provided. Choose the most appropriate option for each gap.

A prepared speech is not easy to deliver, especially if it is not written by the presenter. A ___11__ [A. quantum B. document C. free D. manuscript] delivery is one in which the speech

has been written out word for word and is read to ___12___[A. an audience B. a congregation C. a gathering].

This kind of delivery is usually reserved for very ___13___  occasions. [A. genuine B. impromptu C. guaranteed D. formal]

when exact wording is ___14___ [A. reportive B. conclusive C. speculative D. critical],

such as the State of the Union Address or speeches before the United Nations General ___15___ [A. assembly B. audience C. organization D. negotiation].

The primary advantage is that the speech may be highly ..…16….. [A. advanced B. analogous C. discreet D. polished] in terms of word choice, turns of phrase, and development of ideas.

The main advantage is that this type of delivery is difficult to do well. Reading aloud with meaningful …17… inflection requires the speaker to be very familiar with the text. [A. vocal B. bifocal C. anticipatory D. profuse]

If not, the words will come out in a choppy, expressionless way. Such poor delivery could destroy any …18…[A. decisive B. positive C. interactive D. restrictive]

effects created by the carefully chosen …19… [A. dialect B. rhetoric C. slang D. language].

Lack of familiarity with the …20… [A. text B. context C. exchange D. note] could also prevent the speaker from maintaining eye contact with the people being addressed.

Passage IV

The 2002 World cup Competition, also called Korea/Japan 2002, kicked off with a match between the defending champions, France, and the Senegalese national team from Africa.

Nobody had given the Senegalese any chance against the star-studded defending champions but the 1 - 0 score line in favour of Senegal showed that African football can no longer be taken for granted. This shocking defeat of France had raised Africa’s hopes of going beyond the first round of the tournament.

So, when the Super Eagles of Nigeria filed out against Argentina on the morning

of Sunday, June the second, 2002, many Nigerian football enthusiasts delayed attending church service to watch the match live on television. As expected, the Super Eagles put up strong resistance to the Argentinean challenge and the day would not have ended on a sombre note for Nigerians if the momentum had been sustained throughout the match.

The hope of going beyond the first round, though precarious, was very much alive as the eagles were expected to defeat their next opponents, Sweden and England. But some shortcomings in the Nigerian National team needed to be rectified to brighten their chances against their next opponents.

First, the defence needed to be strengthened to prevent the opponents from incessantly terrorizing the goalkeeper. Then the strikers also needed to improve on their lacklustre performance against Argentina, since every Nigerian expected them to overwhelm their next opponents in the opening rounds.

Lastly, rather than gamble with unfit players, a more creative use of the reserves would be necessary to smoothen the way to the next round. If World Cup debutants, Senegal, could nurse the hope of playing in the knock-out stages of the tournament, then the Eagles should soar instead of being intimidated by big names, for no team is invincible.

21. Which of the following captures the writer’s suggestion on how the Eagles could improve their performance in subsequent matches?

A. Good coaching, more strikers and more defenders.
B. Better goalkeeping, a better attack and a stronger midfield
C. Fair officiating, good goalkeeping and fast players.
D. Replacement of injured players, stronger attackers and a rugged defence.

22. A suitable title for this passage is ________

A. The Eagles in World Cup 2002.
B. The Nigerian and the Senegalese Teams.
C. The FIFA Korea/Japan 2002.
D. African Teams in the 2002 World Cup.

23. From the passage, it can be concluded that the writer _______

A. did not fancy the Eagles’ chances.
B. was non-committal about the chances of the Eagles.
C. was certain about the Eagles’ chances.
D. was optimistic about the chances of the Eagles.

24. From the argument in the last paragraph, it can be concluded that the Eagles were _____

A. more timid and goal-shy than their opponents.
B. not sure of getting to the next round of the tournament.
C. not as strong as the Senegalese team
D. more experienced than the Senegalese team

25. The word debutants, as used in the passage, means _____

A. first-timers    B. giant killers    C. hard-fighters    D. under-dogs

Lexis and Structure - 25 marks

(a) Sentence Completion

In each of questions 26 to 35, fill each gap with the most appropriate option from the list provided.

26. He put _____ in a basket.

A. white dozen eggs     B. a dozen white eggs     C. a white dozen eggs     D. dozen white eggs

27. The reason why he was not offered admission was ______ his results could not be found

A. that    B. when    C. owing to    D. because

28. Course _____ writers are to reflect local colour.

A. material’s    B. materials’    C. materials    D. material

29. If you saw the photograph of the man _____ you be able to identify him?

A. could    B. would    C. can    D. will

30. As Obande does not know anyone in this city, he hopes that some kind ______ will put him up for the night.

A. man    B. men    C. inhabitants    D. individuals

31. The doctor asked the patient what …….

A. the problem is    B. is your problem    C. the problem was    D. is the problem

32. The woman is one of the _____ of the society.

A. elitist    B. elite    C. elites    D. elitists

33. Three-quarters of the people in the village _____ killed but only half of their huts ______ affected.

A. were/were    B. was/was    C. were/was    D. was/were

34. The armed robbers went into the house and robbed the three _______

A. woman occupants
B. women’s occupants
C. woman’s occupants
D. women occupants

35. It was a free-for-all and the students were blamed for taking the law ______

A. in their own hands
B. into their own hands
C. into their hands
D. in their hands

(b) Sentence Interpretation

In each of questions 36 to 40, select the option that best explains the information conveyed in the sentence.

36. If he went to London, he would see the Queen.

A. He did not go to London and did not see the Queen.
B. He would like to see the Queen when he goes to London.
C. When he goes to London, he will see the Queen.
D. He did not see the Queen when he went to London.

37. Ngozi has always considered her father to be an impassioned man.

A. Her father is a very strict man.
B. Her father is a very lively man.
C. Her father is an emotional man.
D. Her father is a disciplined man.

38. The manager paid us in hard currency.

A. We were paid in a strong and stable currency.
B. We were paid in dollars and pound sterling.
C. We were paid in new notes.
D. We were paid in foreign currency.

39. The elders rebuked Olu for taking issue with his principal.

A. Olu was scolded for acting in collusion with his principal.
B. Olu was reprimanded for arguing with his principal.
C. Olu was blamed for issuing a statement denying his principal.
D. Olu was cautioned for shouting at his principal.

40. In spite of his humble beginning, Audu now throws his weight around.

A. His noble birth notwithstanding, Audu is a corrupt man.
B. From his poor background, Audu is now a rich man.
C. Despite his obvious poverty, Audu is a proud man.
D. Audu is arrogant despite his simple upbringing.

(c) Antonyms

In each of questions 41 to 45, choose the option opposite in meaning to the word(s) or phrase in Italics

41. He is well known for his inordinate ambition.

A. passionate    B. sound    C. excessive    D. Moderate

42. A conversative estimate put the number of missing persons at forty.

A. an accurate    B. an incorrect    C. a rough    D. a primitive

43. Agbenu was ecstatic about her result.

A. sad    B. dispassionate    C. mad    D. pessimistic

44. Students could be timid.

A. pugnacious    B. friendly    C. bold    D. covetous

45. The labour leader’s recalcitrant stance was applauded.

A. flexible    B. uncompromising    C. well-informed      D. stubborn

(d) Synonyms

In each of questions 46 to 50, choose the option nearest in meaning to the word(s) or phrase in italics.

46. The boys knew that a storm was imminent.

A. impending    B. encroaching    C. possible    D. threatening

47. The leader has the unstinting support of his party.

A. cautious    B. uninspiring    C. unsparing    D. laudable

48. The essence of governance is to seek the good and well-being of the majority of the people.

A. characteristic       B. importance       C. secret       D. goal

49. The carpenter built a commodious wardrobe.

A. wide    B. gigantic    C. small    D. spacious

50. The company is to shed three thousand staff this year.

A. throw up    B. placate    C. lay off    D. spacious

Oral Forms

In each of questions 51 to 53, choose the option that has the same consonant sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.

51. chalet

A. chairman   B. college   C. champagne    D. chemical

52. teeth

A. taught   B. tank   C. though    D. thought

53. concrete

A. anuxious    B. concern   C. consider D. attend

In each of questions 54 to 55, choose the option that has a different consonant sound from the others.

54.  A. wife    B. of   C. off    D. laugh

55.  A. chef    B. chief   C. shoe   D. ocean

In each of questions 56 to 58, choose the option that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.

56. market

A. mortgage    B. bachelor   C. get    D. enter

57. colonel

A. golden    B. girl   C. colony    D. goal

58. tend

A. cancel    B. jeopardy   C. turned   D. earned

In each of questions 59 and 60, the word in capital letters has the emphatic stress. Choose the option to which the sentence relates.

59. The President SPOKE to the press.

A. Did the President write to the press?
B. Did the President speak to the press?
C. Who spoke to the press?
D. Are these the pressmen that the President spoke?

60. My MOTHER served rice and fresh fish stew for dinner.

A. Did your mother serve rice and fresh fish stew for lunch?
B. Who served rice and fresh fish stew for dinner?
C. What kind of meal did your mother serve for dinner?
D. What kind of stew did your mother serve for dinner?

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