UTME Use of English - 60 questions
PASSAGE I - COMPREHENSION:
Read the passage carefully and answer the question that follows.
There are many different approaches to conflict management, each of which may have utility in particular circumstances. A great deal of scholarship has been devoted to analysing how and in what situations different approaches can be applied most effectively.
Conflict management approaches can be classified into two broad categories: firstly on the basis of the level of escalation which the particular conflict is being managed. In this sense one can distinguish between the peaceful and the military approaches. The trademarks of the peaceful approach are negotiation, verbal persuasion, use of inducements, denial of privileges and subtle manipulations, short of the use of physical forces.
While those of the military approach relates to the use of physical coercion. The use of physical force could be by a party to the conflict or a third party to promote one side’s interests, impose a settlement or create a situation in which diplomatic negotiations can occur.
Secondly, conflict management approaches can also be classified according to the status of the participants in the bargaining process. For example, a conflict could be managed through negotiation that is, direct bargaining by the parties involved in the conflict or through mediation, that is with the help of a third party.
Adaped from Imobiche. T.A. (2003) The (OAUTAU) and OAS Regional Conflict Management A comparative Assesment, lbadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.
1. The expression third party as used in the passage means:
A. Politician B. Intruder C. conformist D. Mediator.