Lesson 6: Packaging

Unit 1: Definition of Packaging
Packaging can be defined as the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. It is also the group of activities in product planning that involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. Primarily, the function of packaging is to contain and protect a product, but in this age, packaging encompasses series of activities and designing done to make a product look presentable to prospective buyers.

Labeling is also part of packaging. It consists of printed information that appears on a product. Packaging is an important marketing tool that draws customers’ attention to a product, describes the qualities/features of a product and makes customers to buy it eventually.

Unit 2: Packaging Decisions
Packaging must be done innovatively in order to give a firm an edge over competitors. Therefore, the critical concepts of packaging must be mastered by organizations.

Packaging decisions include some elements such as size, shape, materials, colour, text and brand mark. All these elements are blended to give a product the best outlook. Since the focus of an organization venturing into packaging is to offer products protection, introduce a new dispensing method and suggest certain qualities about the product or the company, packaging must be strategically planned. It must be consistent with the product advertising, pricing and distribution.

Unit 3: Stages in Packaging
Packaging decisions are made in phases. These stages are:

(i) Primary stage
(ii) Secondary stage
(iii) Tertiary stage

(i) Primary Packaging
The packaging that most closely touches a product, often referred to as “retail packaging.” Its main goals are to protect the product and inform or attract a customer. What’s considered to be primary packaging depends on the product. For example, a pop can is primary packaging (because it’s the primary way to carry around soda), while a corrugated box containing a camera and its accessories is also primary packaging (because it’s the primary way to purchase it).

(ii) Secondary Packing
The packaging used to ship products already in primary packaging. Its main goals are to protect products and provide branding during shipping. It’s also used as display packaging in retail locations such as grocery stores.Examples of secondary packaging include 12-packs of soda cans, the corrugated box that a half-dozen camera boxes ship in, and the display stand for a newly-released Blu-Ray movie. As you can see, primary and secondary packaging sometimes overlap. Secondary packaging can overlap with tertiary packaging as well.

(iii) Tertiary Packaging
The packaging used most often by warehouses to ship secondary packaging. Its mail goal is to properly protect shipments during their time in transit. Tertiary packaging is typically not seen by consumers. Examples include the pallets that bulk shipments are placed on, corrugated pads used to separate layers of boxes and stretch wrap used to secure stacks of cartons.

Distinctions between levels of packaging
Because packaging is important, no matter what packaging types you’re talking about. When you’re creating a packaging strategy, it’s important to consider how all 3 levels of packaging will impact your product’s survival. Primary packaging is critical for branding and protection on the shelves. Secondary packaging is critical for protection and branding during transit.

How your packaging looks tells consumers a great deal about your product and your business. Everything from the logo to the shape, the size, and the colors are important. Your packaging is an opportunity to personalize your product and help it stand out from the crowd.

Packaging sends a strong message, so choose your packaging strategy carefully. There are so many ways that a product can potentially be damaged—during shipping, during stocking at the store, and even while the customer is taking the product home. That’s why it’s critical to strike a balance between the levels of packaging to keep your product looking great and properly protected.

Unit 4: Features of A Good Product Packaging
A standard product packaging should have the following characteristics:

(1) Visual Attraction
— It must be able to catch customers’ attention at a glance. This will endear them to the product.
(2) Creation of clear focal point
— A standard product packaging must have a clear focal point so that consumers can identify and know what the product is all about.
(3) Distinctiveness
— A company’s product packaging must have distinguishing features. This will enable its products to tie differentiated from that of competitors.
(4) Flexibility
— A product packaging system must be in consistence with all other branding activities of a firm. Also, it must support positioning that is appropriate to the product.

Unit 5: Advantages of Packaging

(1) Packaging protects goods
The primary function of packaging is to provide housing or container for products. This is why products are packed in cartons, containers or wrapped in a durable packing material. Hence, products are protected from dust, moist, contamination, and so on.

(2) Packaging makes products look attractive
Through standard packaging, customers are endeared to buy some products. A well packaged product looks more presentable to buyers than an exposed product.

(3) It helps both producers and buyers to measure quantity
When goods are packaged, measurement of weight and size is easier.

(4) Packaging describes the qualities and features of a product
Packaging suggests certain qualities about a company and its products.

Unit 6: Disadvantages of Packaging
(i) It debars or deprives customers the opportunity of thorough checking before purchase.
(ii) Attractive packaging may push customers into impulse purchase.
(iii) It makes companies to spend extra cost that should have been expended on quality product. Packaging is expensive, hence it drains producers’ budget.

(a) Distinguish between a family brand and a private brand.
(b) Explain three reasons for the development of a private brand.
(c) State three importance of packaging. (WAEC 2014)

Scroll Down to Select Page 8 for the next topic – Lesson 7: Promotion

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